WATT PoultryUSA - October 2015 - 39

P O U LT R Y H E A LT H TO DAY.CO M

Pathways to protection

More diseases, more decisions
T

here's more to poultry health than Marek's, IBD, ILT
and ND. Vaccines also play major roles in curbing these
common diseases:
INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS

Cold, wet weather sets the stage for IB outbreaks in broiler
flocks. The key to successful control is correctly identifying the
circulating virus or viruses. Because the IB virus is constantly
mutating, finding the best control measure is like hitting
a moving target.

weather increases the incidence of secondary E. coli infections
due to respiratory challenges from IBV, ILT and ND. E. coli can
also occur as a primary disease.
As a day-of-age spray, E. coli vaccination is gaining acceptance
for its ability to help decrease mortality, particularly in large
birds, Keck says.
CO CC I D I O S I S

One of the most damaging IB variants is Georgia 08 (GA 08),
first identified in the winter of 2007-08. Today, a homologous
vaccine helps offer protection from GA 08, but this isn't the
only IB strain causing problems for producers.

Coccidiosis vaccines are often used in poultry raised without
antibiotics, as well as in conventional production systems that
need to rest in-feed anticoccidials and restore their efficacy. The
vaccines tend to be used in summer months, when coccidiosis
pressure subsides with increased ventilation. Producers then
switch back to ionophores or synthetic anticoccidials.

In many cases, a heterologous vaccine program utilizing
vaccines with different serotypes offers cross-protection in the
field. Keck recommends obtaining PCR analysis to determine
the most prevalent IB serotypes in a flock.

In the US, broiler operations have the option of administering
coccidiosis vaccine in ovo or on day 1 as a hatchery spray.
According to Cookson, the choice hinges on company
philosophy, production history and management preferences.

The Massachusetts IB vaccine is an original field isolate that
can help provide a baseline of protection. After testing for active
serotypes in a flock, broiler companies can use it with one or
more of Arkansas, Connecticut, GA 98 or GA 08 vaccines to help
extend protection.

"The challenge with coccidiosis vaccine is getting good, uniform
delivery of the vaccinal oocysts that stimulate the bird's natural
immune system," Keck says. "Zoetis research with alternative
delivery systems has shown great potential for helping improve
vaccine and flock performance."

Cookson says, when facing a high field challenge, growers
need the best antigenic match possible. This may mean using
one, two or a maximum of three serotypes to get the best
coverage without overwhelming the bird's immune system. The
level of protection achieved against IB depends on farm density,
the season, the degree of immune suppression and a farm's
ability to field-boost.

He points out that the first round of coccidial vaccination is
a transition period for most growers as birds often face both a
field and vaccination challenge.
"Because vaccines may initially cause short-term intestinal
disruption and loss in performance, they are usually more
practical and cost-effective to use in medium to large birds
that have more time to make up for lost weight," he says.

E . CO L I

E. coli has become more prevalent in broiler operations that have
discontinued antibiotics in the hatchery. In addition, cool, wet

SPECIAL ADVERTISING SUPPLEMENT

For more information on developing a long-term vaccination
strategy, readers should contact kalen.cookson@zoetis.com or
lloyd.keck@zoetis.com.



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