WATT Poultry USA - February 2018 - 34
34 ❙ WATTPoultryUSA
PHYTOGENIC FEED ADDITIVES
certain deadline, the need for an alternative
option is as important as ever. Noonan referenced a survey where 50 percent of 1,140 respondents said they were already using phytogenic products
as an alternative in their feeding operations.
What are phytogenic feed additives?
Phytogenic feed additives are plant-based feed additives
or botanicals that are used in natural substances used in
animal nutrition. These substances are derived from herbs,
spices, other plants and their extracts, like essential oils.
According to the company Delacon, results from use
of the products may include sensorial stimulation and
palatability, increased enzymatic activity in the intestinal
tract, improved nutrient utilization, antioxidant effects,
enhanced quorum sensing inhibition leading to reduced
bacterial pathogenicity, improved gut integrity, and improved reproductive performance.
Jan Dirk van der Klis, Delacon's director of products
and innovation and species leader, poultry, explained that
phytogenics are a broad class of secondary plant metabolites with diverse physiological functions. "Effects depend
on [a combination of] actives and dose level," he said.
Read more online: 7 additives to replace
antibiotics in US broiler feeds,
Noonan explained that, in some conventional programs, producers would use antibiotic growth promotors,
antibiotics and ionophores. Now, without the use of antibiotics, producers would treat the same illness with better
biosecurity plans, management, health plans that include
proper vaccinations and, of course, nutrition-based goals.
Phytogenic feed additives do, however, have some
limitations when being used in an evolving operation.
"Low palatability, high fiber contents, phytic acid, protein
contents and balance of AA [amino acid] pattern and presence of anti-nutrients" were all things Noonan said when
discussing the limits of the feed additives.
However, with phytogenic feed additives, researchshows an increase in nutrient availability, amino acid and
increased performance in body weight of the birds. Studies
also show that the additives may lower gut inflammation.
Research has also shown a decrease in ammonia emissions because of increased daily gain and heavier bird.
Klis attributed the additives for being a first line of defense on three different levels for poultry health. "Quorum
sensing inhibition will reduce
toxin production and bacterial
colonization," Klis said about
the first. Level two deals with
cell integrity. Additives will
reduce cell apoptosis, improve
enterocyte maturation and
help with tight junctions and
intestinal barrier/integrity, he explained. Level three has to
do with immunity, and Klis explained that "additives help
with improved phagocytic activity and humoral defense in
the intestinal lumen, increasing bird immunity."
Klis concluded that while outcomes may vary depending on additive use, it is possible to "reduce pathogenicity
of microbiota via quorum sensing inhibition, local anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects improve intestinal integrity, improve enterocyte maturation and an increase enzyme
production and nutrient transport across the intestine." ■
WITH MORE AND MORE big food-related
companies making commitments to only
sell antibiotic-free products by a certain
deadline, the need for an alternative
option is as important as ever.
The study previously mentioned by Noonan showed
that producers agreed the main reason they are implementing phytogenic feed additives into their nutrient programs is to increase efficacy, uniformity, and enhance egg
production and bird growth.
Conventional programs versus programs
using phytogenic feed additives
When dealing with deadly illnesses like necrotic
enteritis that could have a mortality rate of 50 percent,
www.WATTAgNet.com ❙ February 2018