WATT Poultry USA - February 2018 - 44
44 ❙ WATTPoultryUSA
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INGREDIENTS
growth performance might be reduced, but if the cost of alternative ingredients is low enough, overall farm profitability
can decrease. This is why it is important to monitor not only
feed efficiency and growth rate, but also cost of production per
bird, pound of gain or square foot of broiler facilities. And, of
course, profitability per batch remains the final arbiter of all.
I have written extensively for this ingredient, and I will
not cease to emphasize that it can be equally friend and foe.
It can be composed from myriad starch- and fat-rich components such as pasta, cakes, bread, potato chips, sweets,
etc. One needs to know the levels of salt, sugar, starch and
oil/fat in order to not only use it properly in feed formulation, but also to evaluate its quality. Some products are
better than others, not only because of superior quality, but
also because of a more suitable mix of ingredients. In general, for broilers, a product with low levels of lactose and
sugars should be avoided, whereas a high oil (with an added
antioxidant) and starch content should be preferred.
other regions that is frequently imported in other countries as it has become an easily transported commodity.
It can cause cyanosis, meaning birds will die of asphyxia, if not processed properly. This effect is more of
a concern as inclusion levels increase, but normally commercially available cassava from international traders
is of good to high quality. Otherwise, it is a high-starch
ingredient, with nil protein levels that can replace (even
totally) cereals. It takes some learning to use it as it requires grinding and dust control.
Everything but corn and wheat can be considered
a minor ingredient. Of those, only sorghum where it is
raised instead of corn can be of an equal status to these
two staple energy sources. Most alternative ingredients
contain too much and too many non-starch polysaccharides that reduce energy digestibility, cause sticky
droppings, and in general act as an anti-nutritional factor,
albeit not a toxic one. Enzymes are used with more or
less success to counter these antinutritional effects. When using
minor ingredients, it is best to use
a mix of them, or small quantities
in conjunction with a major cereal
or other energy source. Knowing the source of such ingredients is often enough for a nutritionist to determine their
quality and how to best adjust their use in combination
with enzymes and other additives or ingredients.
TRUE SAVINGS COME AT a cost, and it is
the balance that determines profitability.
High oil/fat levels
Oils and fats are expensive, but occasionally batches
(of good quality) can become available at bargain prices.
The same goes for less well-known sources of lipids such
as soap stock, for example. It is possible to use higherthan-normal levels of added oils and fats in broiler diets,
assuming carcass quality changes (if any) remain within
acceptable levels. Off-quality oils and fats (rancid) will
turn birds off feed and, as such, they should be avoided
at any cost. The exact inclusion levels of added oils and
fats depend on the maximum allowed not only by carcass
considerations, but also by the mixing facilities of each
Tapioca (cassava) is a product of Southeast Asia and
Soybean meal is the primary protein source for most
animal diets worldwide, and this makes soybeans an unlikely source of energy. However, it must be remembered
that soybeans are not grown for their protein content, but
for their oil. They contain as much as 38 percent oil in
their natural, dried form. Thus, when whole soybeans are
available, using them can provide a source of energy in
the form of "encapsulated" lipids that are not as prone to
oxidation as lipids in oils and fats. In most cases, full-fat
soybeans are extruded to reduce the anti-nutritional facwww.WATTAgNet.com ❙ February 2018