phases of development. For this reason,
the industry may see an increase in single-stage incubation.
and abroad in a safe and ef;cient manner.
So, even though challenges do exist, the
outlook is for a pro;table, safe and ef;cient
poultry industry. ■
Bird health through immune
modulation, coccidiosis control
The ;nal speakers in the symposium
dedicated time to other important support
areas, including bird health through immune modulation, coccidiosis control and
Lillehoj focused on the future of using immune modulation. The concept is
to provide birds with nutritional ingredients that interact with immune cells to
initiate a defense response. By improving immune response, the bird will be
able to have better health and respond
to its genetic predisposition through
good nutrition and management. In this
regard, current research is focusing on
the use of probiotics and prebiotics,
bacteriophages, essential oils and herbs,
and bioactive phytochemicals.
The recent withdrawal from the market
of 3-Nitro (Roxarsone) as a coccidiosis
control by P;zer was a response to consumer concerns about using an arsenic
compound in poultry feed. This loss will
drive future studies for coccidiosis control
in the poultry industry.
Coccidiosis control is a $90 million industry in the USA and a $3 billion industry
worldwide. According to Mathis, there can
be greater than 700 trillion oocytes in a
40-ft. by 400-ft. house at one time. With
those numbers in mind, we can see how
the industry’s future will be focused on
continued coccidiosis control.
Dunham also indicated that ingredient
additives will have to be the future of the
poultry industry to control health. Even
though some of these replacements will
not be as good as 3-Nitro and antibiotics,
the response to consumer groups is clear
and research to de;ne replacements will be
important to the future of the industry.
that the poultry industry has been very
successful in all aspects discussed above.
The industry is now able to produce a
2. 5 kg male broiler at 35 days of age, a
20 kg turkey at 20 weeks of age and 335
eggs in 365 days.
All of this success has allowed the
industry to feed the population of the U.S.
C.Z. Alvarado, Ph.D., is associate professor,
poultry and egg, quality and safety at Texas
Feeding the world efficiently
Even with all the limitations and
concerns, it is important to remember