Poultry USA - January 2020 - 26

epithelial cells and measurement was collected
by a fluorescence-based cellular test system.
Vero cells were treated with aliquots of culture
supernatant of the above-mentioned bacterial
strain (considered as "test item"), and Bacillus
cereus ATCC 14579 (DSMZ DSM-31; considered
as "positive control").
No cytotoxicity was observed for the negative
control and for the B. amyloliquefaciens CECT
5940 strain. In contrast, the positive control
(supernatant of the B. cereus strain) showed an
increase in the fluorescence signal, indicating
pronounced cytotoxicity even when applied at the
lowest concentration on the Vero cells.
Thereby, the study concluded that the DFM
strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 does
not have toxigenic potential.
ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL
SUSCEPTIBILITY AND POTENTIAL
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE GENES
In addition to the safety studies, a phenotype test
determining the minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC, EFSA 2012) for a group of antimicrobials
and analyses of the WGS for the presence of
known antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes were
performed on the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
CECT 5940.
The susceptibility of the strain was tested
against ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin,
neomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol,
tetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin,
trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, rifampin
and clindamycin. Tests were made in microtiter
plates containing serial dilutions of the antibiotics
according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards
Institute (2006). In addition, the existing WGS of
the strain was compared with references in the
comprehensive antibiotic resistance database
(CARD).
To assess the phenotypic antimicrobial
resistance of the B. amyloliquefaciens CECT
5940, the MIC values for a selected group of
antimicrobials were determined in triplicate
measurements. The cut-off values for Bacillus
published by EFSA (2018) served as reference.
Reference cut-off values for antimicrobials
not listed by EFSA were taken from the

recommendations for Bacillus published by the
Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition (SCAN
2001). As result, B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940
showed susceptibility to all antibiotics tested, with
MIC values lower than the reference values. The
bioinformatic evaluation showed that the strain
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 does not
carry any AMR genes for antimicrobials considered
as critically important antimicrobials in humans and
animals.
ASSESSMENT OF HEAT STABILITY UNDER
COMMERCIAL FEED PROCESSING
Pelleting involves a mechanical process in which
small feed ingredient particles are agglomerated
into larger particles by applying moisture, heat,
and pressure. There are several nutritional and
performance benefits associated with pelleting;
nevertheless, this process can be detrimental
to certain feed ingredients (Thomas et al., 1998)
and feed additives such as DFMs. Spore-forming
Bacillus spp. DFMs have the ability to withstand high
temperatures, chemicals, and drying processes.
Although Bacillus spp. spores are generally resistant,
testing is important to demonstrate stability
throughout feed processing since this characteristic
is strain specific.
The stability of B. amyloliquefaciens CECT
5940 strain at different pelleting temperatures
was demonstrated. For this test, spores of
B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 were mixed
into a broiler starter feed for a final expected
concentration of 1 × 10 6 CFU/g feed for every
feed batch. Mash feed was conditioned for six
minutes at 190 ºF (87.8 ºC) and 195 ºF (90.5
ºC) and then pelleted at the same temperatures.
The pelleted feeds were then dried and cooled
under ambient conditions estimated at 70 ºF
(21 ºC) and retention time of 15 minutes. Total
spores were counted from 10 mash feed samples
obtained immediately after mixing and then from
another 10 samples obtained after the mash
feed had been conditioned and subjected to the
different pelleting temperatures. Feed samples
were analyzed for spore counts and results
were reported as Log 10 CFU/g feed. Results
were analyzed by JMP ® v13.1.0 and reported as
means and standard deviation (SD). Additionally,



Poultry USA - January 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Poultry USA - January 2020

Poultry USA - January 2020
Contents
Will the trade war cool off in 2020?
Poultry’s Perch: USPOULTRY invests millions in poultry industry research
US could find $1 billion poultry market in China
Feed additives that will succeed in 2020 and beyond
What role will alternative proteins play in the future?
Mar-Jac Poultry feed mill built for capacity, expansion
Poultry consumers want convenience, claims
Perdue Farms, Niman Ranch have been good for each other
Product Review
Market Place
Ad Index
Poultry USA - January 2020 - CT1
Poultry USA - January 2020 - CT2
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Poultry USA - January 2020
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Cover2
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Contents
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Will the trade war cool off in 2020?
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 3
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 4
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 5
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Poultry’s Perch: USPOULTRY invests millions in poultry industry research
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 7
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 8
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 9
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 10
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 11
Poultry USA - January 2020 - US could find $1 billion poultry market in China
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 13
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 14
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 15
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Feed additives that will succeed in 2020 and beyond
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 17
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 18
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 19
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 20
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 21
Poultry USA - January 2020 - What role will alternative proteins play in the future?
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 23
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 24
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 25
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 26
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 27
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Mar-Jac Poultry feed mill built for capacity, expansion
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 29
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 30
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 31
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 32
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 33
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 34
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 35
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 36
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 37
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 38
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 39
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Poultry consumers want convenience, claims
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 41
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 42
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 43
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 44
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 45
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 46
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 47
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Perdue Farms, Niman Ranch have been good for each other
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 49
Poultry USA - January 2020 - 50
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Product Review
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Ad Index
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Cover3
Poultry USA - January 2020 - Cover4
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